Secure IoT Deployments with Avaya SDN Fx™ Architecture Solutions

Let’s look at how to deploy the IoT in a safe and sane manner—a top-of-mind business challenge. Before diving into the technology, let’s remember why secure IoT deployments are so important. The Yahoo breach is a lesson learned: Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer lost $12M in bonuses over the Yahoo data breach and Yahoo paid $16M to investigate the breach and cover legal expenses as of March 2, 1017. It’s clear that the cost of not building a safe infrastructure is much more than the cost to build one.

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is sometimes over-hyped. At a base level, separating the control plane from the data plane makes sense (if one understands the definitions of a data plane and control plane). In a practical sense, it means the network infrastructure doesn’t need to be managed on a node-by-node basis (i.e., logging into network devices on each end of the cable to make complementary changes to configure a network link). This is where SDN can be over-hyped. The SDN solution automates the process of making the changes to each end of the cable, making the network easier to manage. But, it doesn’t reduce the complexity, increase the resiliency (other than reduce outages due to typing errors), or make it easier to troubleshoot or expand.

Avaya SDN FxTM Architecture is based on fabric, not network technology. The architecture was designed to be managed as an entity of subcomponents and not a bunch of nodes that are interconnected to create a larger entity. In other words, it’s like designing something to manage a forest, as opposed to managing the trees. Would you really want to manage a forest one tree at a time?

How SDN Fx Architecture Benefits the IoT

Although the SDN Fx network architecture wasn’t specifically designed for the IoT, it works well for providing a solid foundation to deploy IoT solutions. These are the key components of the SDN Fx Architecture that benefit the IoT:

Avaya Fabric Connect is Avaya’s implementation of Shortest Path Bridging (SPB/IEEE 802.1aq). SPB replaces the traditional network stack, greatly simplifying network configuration, management and security. Three key benefits of Fabric Connect apply directly to IoT deployment use case:

  • Hyper-Segmentation: SPB supports 16 million+ network segments. In theory, every IoT device on a network could have its own segment. More realistically, every device type can have its own segment. For instance, HVAC could be one network, security cameras could be on another, employees on a third, guests on a fourth, etc. It’s worth noting that the NSA sees segmenting IoT networks as a key to limiting exposure of IoT deployments. (In my next blog, I’ll examine how Avaya solutions provide security between devices on the same segment.)
  • Automatic Elasticity: Services in SPB are provisioned at the edge without touching the core of the network. This makes it very straightforward to provision network services for the hundreds or thousands of IoT devices that the business wants up and running yesterday. Plus, edge provisioning makes moving devices simple. When a device is disconnected from the network, the network service to that port is disabled and eliminates open holes in the network security. When the device is connected to the same or different port, the device is authenticated and services are automatically configured for the port.
  • Native Stealth: SPB operates at the Ethernet, not the IP layer. For example, if a would-be hacker gains access to one segment of a traditional network, they can go IP-snooping to discover the network architecture. A traditional network is only as secure as the least secure segment/component. With Fabric Connect, if a security loophole is overlooked in a less important network project, there isn’t a back door to access the rest of the network and the corporate data.

Avaya Fabric Extend provides the ability to extend an SPB fabric across a non-fabric network, such as IP core, between campuses over Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), or out to the cloud over WAN. IoT deployments enable the phased adoption of SDN Fx so that IoT projects can gain the values above, without ripping and replacing significant network infrastructure or affecting non-IoT workloads.

Avaya Fabric Attach automates the elasticity of the SPB fabric for IoT devices and other devices supporting Automatic Attachment (IEEE 802.1Qcj). Fabric Attach allows the device to signal the network that it needs in order to connect to a service. If the device is authorized, the service is automatically provisioned. When the device is disconnected, the service is terminated. If the device is moved to a different network port, the service will be provisioned automatically to the new port. This makes deploying and moving Fabric Attach-enabled devices very simple. For a real-world example, see how Axis Communications is starting to deploy Fabric Attach in their IoT devices.

Avaya Open Networking Adapters—an Open Network Adapter is a small device that sits in-line with an IoT device to provide programmable security for IoT devices that lack adequate network security. One component of the solution is Fabric Attach, which provides automated service provisioning and mobility to devices that don’t have the auto-attach capability. (I’ll explore more about the power of Open Networking Adapters in an upcoming blog.)

The Avaya Identity Engines Portfolio provides powerful tools for managing user and device access to a network, commonly referred to as Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. In the IoT use case, Identity Engines authenticate a device by MAC address or MAC address group and use predefined policies for the device type to dynamically configure services. For instance, a camera could be assigned to Video VLAN 30 and provisioned for multicast, while a phone would be authenticated, assigned to VLAN 20, and configured for SIP communications. This provides security for unauthorized devices joining the network and provides automatic segmentation based on device type and service requirements.

I’m not sure if there ever was a time when network design and implementation was static, but there was a time when the devices connected to the network could be predicted: servers, printers, storage, PCs, etc. With IoT, IT is being asked to design networks for devices that haven’t been thought of yet. The old network technologies were designed for mobility by work order, and IT was able to list the number of device types that wouldn’t work on the network. SDN Fx provides a true software-defined network and not software-defined automation on old network constructs. A fabric network has the intrinsic flexibility and security required for tomorrow’s IoT projects, today.

In my recent blogs about the IoT, I’ve looked at how the IoT enables Digital Transformation and examined a business-first approach to IoT technology adoption. Next in this blog series, I’ll explore the newest component of the SDN Fx solution for the IoT, the Avaya Surge™ Solution.

Related Articles:

Benefits of Deploying the Avaya Surge™ Solution for Any IP Network

The Avaya Surge™ Solution is designed to work in an SDN Fx fabric environment. But many companies don’t have the luxury of deploying a full Ethernet fabric before they deploy their IoT-based applications. Avaya Surge release 1.0.1 (November 2016) added support for non-fabric IP networks.

The Surge IoT Controller works essentially the same way as in the SDN Fx fabric deployment, except the Open vSwitch on the Open Networking Adapter can’t automate network provisioning. Therefore, the VLANs must be configured manually on the network. The solution still provides centralized inventory, white list profiles, flow filtering, and a single pane-of-glass status for all Open Networking Adapter-enabled IoT devices. Without the SDN Fx fabric infrastructure, segmentation is limited to VLANs that aren’t stealthy and mobility requires manual network service set-up and tear-down. For environments where devices are static, the IP-only version of Avaya Surge may suffice until a full fabric can be deployed.

The risk profile of IoT doesn’t lend itself to “good enough” solutions for long. When a company’s network and data are compromised, less than best practices will be criticized in the media, in the court room, and, as in the Yahoo case, impact executive pay. Avaya Surge Release 2.0, scheduled for the second quarter of 2017, adds IPSec encryption and tunneling to an IP-only deployment. (IPSec will be available for SDN Fx deployments as well.)

A HyperSec gateway is deployed to coordinate the IPSec functionality with the Open Networking Adapters. The HyperSec gateway terminates the IPSec connection from the Adapters and directs the data to the correct VLAN to reach the target application server. Return data is encrypted and sent to the appropriate Adapter, which terminates and forwards the data to the IoT device. The addition of the HyperSec gateway adds encryption to the data on the network, while adding mobility to the solution. The Adapter is able to dynamically create the IPSec tunnel to the HyperSec gateway, reducing manual network management.

The HyperSec gateway is deployed as an active/standby pair. Each Adapter will be set up with primary/secondary tunnels. If the primary is not available, the Adapter will communicate over the secondary tunnel to the HyperSec gateway. The HyperSec cluster is headless. Configuration information is maintained in the Surge IoT Controller. This greatly simplifies scale-out clustering of the HyperSec gateway.

I will blog more about the HyperSec solution closer to availability. Keep in mind that you can get started with Avaya Surge on an IP network today and add IPSec when it becomes available. Also, it is not an all-or-nothing solution. Critical IoT components and services go through the HyperSec gateway and less critical and stationary workloads are deployed with IP and VLANs. Furthermore, SDN Fx fabric can be incrementally added to portions of the IoT portfolio to gain the value of hyper-segmentation, native stealth, and automatic elasticity.

Look at all of this through a different lens. I was talking to a friend, an intellectual property rights attorney, about the exposure that companies face from data breaches. It was one of those conversations where he wanted to know more about the technology and I was curious about his perspective as someone who makes money from a company’s problems. He was especially interested because legal firms are getting $500K to $2.5M for a simple breach defense. When looking at these numbers, I think that even if a company isn’t found culpable in a data breach, they could spend a lot of money in defense. So, it’s probably best to invest in the infrastructure to deploy IoT projects in a safe and sane manner.

In my recent blogs about the IoT, I’ve looked at how the IoT enables Digital Transformation and examined a business-first approach to IoT technology adoption. Then I looked at how Avaya’s SDN FxTM provides a foundation for a safe and sane IoT deployment. Finally, I introduced the Avaya Surge™ Solution, which extends network fabric to IoT devices and provides centralized device management, protection, and flow filtering.

Avaya Surge™ Solution Makes Securing the IoT Easy for All Devices

Let’s explore how you can manage thousands of IoT devices while protecting your network and data from unnecessary risk. Often, we think newer devices will be more secure than older ones that were network-enabled before the current threat profile. However, Gartner predicts devices will remain unsecured for quite some time. The Avaya Surge™ Solution makes securing the IoT easy for all devices.

Avaya Surge, recently named a 2017 Gold Edison Award winner, consists of an IoT controller and an Open Networking Adapter, which is a proxy for IoT endpoints and provides the programmable security for insecure devices.

Key Attributes of Avaya Surge

  • Automated onboarding of IoT devices
  • Inventory reporting, including real-time status
  • MAC-based device security
  • Traffic flow filtering
  • Tight integration with Avaya SDN Fx (but works with any IP network)
  • IPSec encryption and tunneling in release 2.0 (coming in the second half of 2017)

How Avaya Surge Works

  1. An Open Networking Adapter is paired with an IoT device on the IoT controller by matching the serial number of Adapter (or QR code) to the MAC address of the IoT device. The IoT Controller sees the Adapter/IoT device as an inseparable pair and manages the IoT device through the Adapter.
  2. The IoT device is connected to the Adapter which is connected to the edge switch (plug RJ45 connectors together).
  3. The Adapter uses DHCP and DNS to locate the IoT Controller. The Adapter negotiates security keys with the IoT Controller and the onboarding process begins.
  4. The IoT Controller looks up the profile identified for the device type connected to the Adapter and down loads it to the Adapter. The profile contains network configuration, service requirements and allowable flows.
  5. The IoT device establishes connection to its application server and the Adapter begins monitoring network traffic.

Key Operational Benefits of Avaya Surge

  • The Adapter doesn’t retain profile information through a power cycle. If an Adapter is disconnected from the network or loses power, data in memory is lost. When power is returned, the Adapter must connect to the IoT controller to get its profile to function. Avaya Surge will indicate the Adapter/IoT device has lost network connectivity. Without a valid registration, the Adapter does nothing. Network or profile information can’t be learned from a stolen Adapter.
  • The Adapter is based on white list security. When the Adapter boots, it doesn’t allow traffic from the IoT device. The profile provides a white list of approved devices and flows. For instance, if the only IP addresses that an IoT device is supposed to contact are its application server and network services (DHCP, DNS, etc.), the Adapter will block all other traffic. This prevents a compromised device from infecting its peers.
  • The Adapter has a learning mode. A profile can be complex to create. Therefore, the Adapter can be set to accept all traffic and mirror it to the IoT controller. The IoT device operates normally with Avaya Surge cataloging the traffic. This allows the IoT device to operate normally under the supervision of IT staff. When adequate time has passed (dependent on device operation), the captured traffic is converted to a reusable profile that becomes the standard for all like devices. The Adapter is taken out of learning mode, updated with the new profile, and a new device has been added to the network—safely and sanely. Under normal circumstances, the IoT Controller receives reports only from the Adapter and isn’t in the data path.
  • The profile stops MAC spoofing. If all the Adapter did was lock down a MAC address, an antagonist could disconnect the IoT device and connect a computer with the same MAC address. Technically, the Adapter will allow this to happen. However, as soon at the antagonist tries to do something that the IoT device isn’t normally allowed to do, the Adapter will block the traffic and report an abnormal flow attempt to the IoT Controller. One of the issues with IoT is many devices can’t be physically secured and are susceptible to tampering. Avaya Surge addresses this challenge.
  • The inventory addresses all use cases. IoT devices will be deployed within an organization across many use cases and application stacks. For example, a facility may have point-of-sale terminals: CCTV cameras, HVAC sensors and controls, security key pads and door controllers, medical devices, robots, assembly stations, and more. Each of these is deployed with its own application servers with device status monitoring and inventory management. Avaya Surge provides network IT with a single pane status for all IoT devices that are secured with Adapters within the infrastructure.
  • Avaya Surge supports device mobility. Devices can be automatically moved from one network port to another. The Adapter contains OVS 2.4 code, including support for Auto-attach (IEEE 802.1Qcj). Auto-attach provides the ability for the Adapter to signal Avaya Fabric Attach to create the required services on the edge switch, such as VLAN and ISID mapping. If a device needs to be moved, a technician would simply unplug the Adapter from the switch, move the device and Adapter to the new location, and plug the Adapter into the new port. When the Adapter is unplugged, the Adapter loses its profile and the SDN Fx network disables the services to the old port. When the Adapter is reconnected, it contacts the IoT Controller to get its profile and the OVS requests the services be provisioned on the new port. Within a couple of minutes, the IoT device is functioning in its new location and the move has been done safely, sanely and without Networking IT involved. Note that networking IT would have been notified when the Adapter was disconnected and reconnected through the Avaya Surge dashboard.

In my recent blogs about the IoT, I’ve looked at how the IoT enables Digital Transformation and examined a business-first approach to IoT technology adoption. Then I looked at how Avaya’s SDN FxTM provides a foundation for a safe and sane IoT deployment. Next in this blog series, I’ll explore deploying Avaya Surge in a non-SDN Fx IP network.

Data Protection Part 3: Where Does Encryption fit into Data Protection?

I’ve mentioned that the SNIA SDC Conference provided the catalyst for writing this blog series on data protection. (See part 1 and part 2.) While there was a lot of discussion at the Conference on protecting data from loss, there were also discussions about encryption of data at rest. I noticed that the conversations about data protection and encryption were separate and distinct. Networks also employ data encryption methods to protect data in transit. I was sitting in one of the sessions when I began to wonder how many times a data block is encrypted and decrypted in its life. I also wondered how many times encrypted data is encrypted again as “data at rest” becomes “data in transit.”

Data at rest encryption can be divided into two categories: media encryption and object encryption. Media encryption focuses on protecting data at the physical device level such as the disk drive or tape. Encryption for data at rest can be performed at multiple places in the data storage stack—host, SAN appliance or target device (tape drive, tape library, disk drive). There are use cases for each deployment option, but generally it’s best to encrypt as close to the physical media as the use case allows. There are often trade-offs to be examined. For instance, encryption defeats the value of deduplication. In most data sets, there is a lot of repeated data that can be managed more efficiently if deduplicated. If host-based encryption is employed, the value of deduplicating data downstream, such as WAN acceleration, is eliminated.

The benefit of encryption at the media level has generated interest in encrypting tape drives and Self-Encrypting hard Drives (SED). Tape use cases are pretty straight forward: create a data copy on media that can be shipped off-site for protection of the data at the primary site. Tape used to be the primary backup media, but with long recovery times and the data explosion, tape has been relegated to tertiary copies and long term archive of data that doesn’t need to be online. The key is tape is designed to be shipped off-site, meaning the shipment could be hijacked. Encrypting the data on the tapes makes a lot of sense. A box of encrypted tapes has the same value as a box of used tapes, i.e., not worth hijacking.

I have “sold” a lot of SEDs in my career. I’ve always tried to be honest with customers. SEDs have limited value in data center operations. Drives deployed in the data center aren’t intended to transport data out of the data center. (There are a couple of valid use cases where moving data on drives makes sense, such as data center moves or seeding a disaster recovery site, but of all the drives deployed, very few are used in this manner). I’d often test a customer’s view of SEDs with a simple question, “Do you have locks on your data center doors?” Some customers would get the joke and I knew I could have a frank conversation. If the customer didn’t get the joke (i.e., understand that SEDs only provide protection if the physical drive falls into the wrong hands), I proceeded cautiously. Two other factors come into play at that moment: there was an account manager in the room who is commission driven (SEDs are slightly more expensive than non-SEDs) and paranoid customers with deep pockets are an IT supplier’s best friend. Of course, just because you’re paranoid, doesn’t mean that there aren’t a few thousand hackers out there looking to gain value from your data.

Bottom line is, if someone gains access to your network or manages to compromise someone’s username/password, SEDs don’t help. The encryption key is automatically applied to the drive when the drive is started. Any process that has access to the system after that isn’t going to be denied access by the drive encryption.

The primary value of SEDs is when a drive is deployed outside the data center, where the primary or secondary data protection is at the drive. Best example is a laptop. You can assume that the data on a stolen laptop without encryption is in the hands of the thief. Other portable devices, such as tablets, smartphones, etc., also have encrypted storage devices, though not a hard drive in a conventional sense. Note: Many Solid State Drives (SSDs) are also SEDs, which makes the case for the SSD option in your next laptop stronger.

Before my friends in the storage industry start tweeting about me, I do see a few values for SEDs in the data center.

  1. Compliance. Many security offices require SEDs—it never hurts to have SEDs, just understand where they fit in the security stack.
  2. Storage is going to be repurposed. Lab environments, cloud providers, etc., where storage may be used for one project or customer today and another tomorrow may desire or require compete data erasure. The easiest way to erase data is to encrypt it and then delete the key. The data will technically be on the drive, but not accessible.
  3. End of life destruction. Drives (spinning and SSD) do wear out and need to be disposed of. Some people require physical destruction of the drive (heard of people shooting them with a high-powered rifle, but never witnessed it). There are services that will crush or shred the drive. However it’s easier to shred the key. (Paranoid people do both.)

Object level encryption is another way to address protecting data at rest. I’m using a very vague definition of object for this discussion. Objects are often associated with a particular cataloging mechanism that supports very large numbers of items to be stored. In this case, I’m not being that specific. Think of an object as something that could be addressed at the application level. I spent a great portion of my storage career working on Networked Attached Storage (NAS) systems, another poorly named technology. NAS is essentially a purpose-built file server. For this conversation a file and the file system could be considered objects.

I’ve had many conversations with customers about protecting files with encryption. Customers often wanted to encrypt the entire file system. This is pretty straight forward: one key to manage for all of the content in the file system. The problem is the one key tends to be widely distributed—any person or process that needs access to a file gets the key to the entire file system. A side effect of this kind of a solution is that all metadata of the file system is also encrypted. So operations like backups that operate based on the creation and modification timestamp need to have the key to the file system. Therefore systems like backup servers, anti-virus servers, etc., have to be secure as they literally have the keys to the kingdom.

Another approach is to encrypt the files within the file system. Think of systematic zipping of files with encryption and a password. This has the benefit of not affecting the metadata. A file can be moved, emailed, deleted, etc., without decrypting the file. The backup software doesn’t need to have the key to execute, and the files in the backup are encrypted. Operations that need to access the internals of the file, such as anti-virus or full-text search still require the keys. The challenge is managing the keys and access control lists. Some files are written and read by only one person/application. However, most files are intended to be shared. For instance, emailing an encrypted file doesn’t do the recipient any good unless you also provide the key. I know a lot of people who encrypt any file that they put in their “free cloud storage.” It isn’t that they don’t trust the cloud provider—it’s just that sometimes a little paranoia is a good thing.

So why not encrypt everything everywhere? As I pointed out above, encrypted file systems are hard to manage. Encryption also makes it harder to detect intrusions in the network when the data-in-transit is encrypted. I can remember pointed discussions between the storage admins and the network admins about encrypting replicated data. The storage admin wanted the data encrypted at the source array and decrypted at the target array. The network admin wanted to encrypt at the WAN edge device, so they had visibility into the data leaving the building.

An interesting shift is the use of encryption by hackers. Rather than copy your data, they encrypt it and then offer to sell you the key. This phenomenon is called ransomware. While detection of the malicious code is the preferred defense, a good data backup enables a good backup plan. Suppose you have hourly copies of your data. Rather than choose to pay the ransom, you could choose to restore your data to the point in time before your data became encrypted.

At this point, if you’re expecting me to tie a nice little bow around data protection, you’re going to be disappointed. Protecting data in a world where the threats were application errors, failed components, undetected bit swaps and natural disasters was a challenge. Today, the threats are using teams of well-funded experts focused on finding the weak links in your data security structure. The threat landscape is constantly changing. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to protect against all threats. The IT technology industry is working to provide a solution component. However, the threat volatility forces overall protection to be reactive to the threat technology.

Organizations need to look at the problem the way the Navy does when protecting data.

  • Implement layers of security
  • Assume that any layer is penetrable
  • Minimize the damage of a penetration

First step, limit access to your data infrastructure through identity checks and limit access to need to know. Avaya Identity Engines provide a powerful portfolio of tools for managing user and device access to your network. However, assume that someone will figure out how to forge credentials and gain access to your infrastructure.

Avaya SDN Fx provides a key foundational component of a data security solution, minimizing the exposure of your network to unauthorized access. So when the spy gains access to your network, you can limit the exposure and keep the perpetrator from wandering around your network looking for the good stuff.

Data in transit and data at rest encryption and data backups provide another level of defense and recoverability when other layers are breached.

Finally, everybody needs to be involved in keeping data secure. I was interrupted while writing this conclusion to help a sales engineer with an opportunity. I emailed him several docs and links to others as background information. Even though the docs are marked as to which ones were for internal use only, I noted in the email which docs were sensitive and couldn’t be shared with the customer. Proper strategies include systems, processes, and people all working together across organizations and technology stacks to prevent data from being lost or ripped off.

I’ve always been a believer that the effort to make things idiot proof was often wasted because they just keep making better idiots. In this case, they’re making better experts to come after your data. Fortunately, we have very intelligent experts working for the good guys too. We’ll always be one step behind, but we can continue to strive to minimize the threat surface and minimize the impact of the surface being violated.