Data Protection Part 2: What About Unauthorized Data Access?

In part 1, we explored the physical loss of data, meaning the data is no longer available for access (intelligently) by anyone. There’s another, perhaps more significant threat to your data protection efforts: someone gaining access to sensitive information, often referred to as a data breach. An argument could be made that in some cases it is better to have lost data than to have data become available to unauthorized individuals. For example, when it comes to personal photos, would you prefer nobody sees them again or everyone sees them?

Data breaches didn’t start with the digital age. In my blog on Wireless Location Based Services (WLBS), I explained that I started my career working for the U.S. Navy. We had very specific rules for handling classified documents (and penalties for mishandling them). Not all documents were handled the same. We had file cabinets with different levels of security (weight, strength, lock) for different document classifications. The idea being the more valuable the information, the harder it would be gain access to the documents. At one facility the windows were replaced with glass block to prevent someone from outside the facility reading documents on our desks. Watergate is an example of a high-profile data breach long before the digital age.

Not all unauthorized data access is from outside an organization. At one point in my career, someone left a document on the printer that contained specific employee compensation information. Information didn’t leave the company, but still caused significant issues for HR.

Frederick Wilfrid Lancaster proposed that computers would create a paperless society. I’d argue that computers made it more efficient to generate paper, but with the advent of better user interfaces and a generation that didn’t grow up dependent on paper, maybe he’ll be correct. The information age, however, has changed the threat profile for data breaches. The challenge is the same: keep people from gaining access to the information. Security guards, identity badges, and locks provided the primary security mechanisms for physical document protection. There are many movies about spies duplicating badges, picking locks, and using cameras that looked like ball-point pens or lighters to photograph documents. But you never see a spy photographing the entire contents of a file cabinet (stealing the cabinet would require a forklift and draw too much attention).

Now the thieves don’t have to go to the facility. They gain access to your data via your network. You don’t know they got access to your data until after they’re gone. Now, the big difference is the thief can make a copy of the entire file cabinet or database. Stealing credit card information is not new. Some unscrupulous sales people have always copied down credit card numbers and gone on shopping sprees. The difference is scale. A salesperson or bartender might get a handful of numbers at a time, but hackers get millions.

In the paper world, incursions were addressed by defense in depth tactics. When I entered the Navy base, my ID was checked at the outer gate, granting me access to certain areas on the base. As I got closer to the pier, my ID would be checked again to ensure I was authorized to access the ship area. My ID would be checked when I got to my office building, again to verify that I should be there. At this point I still didn’t have access to any sensitive information. To gain access to documents, I had to know the combination to the safe. So up to this point, security was focused on identifying who had the privilege to present the combination to the safe. Similar tactics are deployed in the digital world today. User names, passwords, and access control lists (ACLs) are common methods for identification, authentication, and authorization. Avaya’s Identity Engines provide a powerful portfolio of tools for managing user and device access to your network.

Layers of access control are great as long as data is placed behind the proper level of security and there isn’t a way to sneak between layers. If someone had placed sensitive information just inside the outer gate of the base, then anyone who gained access to the base would have had access to the information. Europol terror data was compromised because someone made a copy on an unprotected device exposed to the Internet; this defeated all other security measures. As another example, think about the difference between web content posted for customers on the public website vs content posted on the internal sales portal. Some information is available to everyone and is posted on the sales portal for convenience (e.g., spec sheets). However, there is information that is made available to partners that shouldn’t be available to customers (or the competition) such as pricing, sales presentations, or competitive positioning.

Poke around many company public websites and you’ll find information you aren’t supposed to see. Often, the documents will even be labeled with “internal use only.” IT can deploy Identity Engines or similar solutions to the best of their ability, but if the rest of the organization fails to pay attention to information security, data will be leaked.

Nobody is perfect, neither is any system. Occasionally cracks are exposed in data security. Hackers are very persistent and will keep poking around until they find a weak spot. Because of the architecture and complexity of modern networks, once a hacker gains a modicum of access, they often can get full access to the network. The intruder can use tools to easily discover the network topology and then determine where to gain access to valuable information.

The Navy doesn’t allow everyone to roam around the base just because they gain access through the perimeter gate. You don’t want people to roam around your network just because they found a weak entry point. Suppose a spy with forged credentials shows up at the gate in a food service truck. Food security isn’t a high concern, so security checks on the credentials are minimal. If the base is wide open, the spy could drive the truck anywhere. However, interior checks prevent the food service truck from access to sensitive areas such as the munitions warehouse.

Network segmentation with Avaya SDN Fx Architecture provides similar protections. Shortest Path Bridging (SPB) is based on a Virtual Service Network (VSN). A VSN is similar to a VLAN, except the VSN is totally isolated from all other segments unless specifically authorized to have access to another segment (L3 route). If the Navy could implement a VSN concept for vehicular traffic, the food truck spy would be assigned to a virtual road that only went to buildings that served food. The spy wouldn’t be aware of any other road, wouldn’t see any other buildings, and wouldn’t have any idea how to get to the munitions building. In fact, there wouldn’t even be any indication that a munitions building even existed.

Further, suppose there’s a celebration being held at the ball field on base. The celebration has a temporary kitchen set up that requires a food delivery. A virtual road could be set up to allow food service trucks to get to the ball field. As soon as the event concludes, the virtual road is retracted, eliminating food service truck access to the ball field.

To explain more about this approach, Jean Turgeon, Vice President and Chief Technologist for SDN at Avaya, has a three-part blog series on the security benefits of end-to-end network segmentation.

Jean Turgeon mentions the 2013 data breach at Target. The hackers gained access to an HVAC network and wandered around until they gained access to PCI information. If Target had implemented hyper-segmentation, the worst the hackers could have done was change the ambient environment, hardly an event that would have made headlines around the world or blog topics three years later.

In part 3 of this series, we’ll explore the role of data encryption in preventing data loss.

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Benefits of Deploying the Avaya Surge™ Solution for Any IP Network

The Avaya Surge™ Solution is designed to work in an SDN Fx fabric environment. But many companies don’t have the luxury of deploying a full Ethernet fabric before they deploy their IoT-based applications. Avaya Surge release 1.0.1 (November 2016) added support for non-fabric IP networks.

The Surge IoT Controller works essentially the same way as in the SDN Fx fabric deployment, except the Open vSwitch on the Open Networking Adapter can’t automate network provisioning. Therefore, the VLANs must be configured manually on the network. The solution still provides centralized inventory, white list profiles, flow filtering, and a single pane-of-glass status for all Open Networking Adapter-enabled IoT devices. Without the SDN Fx fabric infrastructure, segmentation is limited to VLANs that aren’t stealthy and mobility requires manual network service set-up and tear-down. For environments where devices are static, the IP-only version of Avaya Surge may suffice until a full fabric can be deployed.

The risk profile of IoT doesn’t lend itself to “good enough” solutions for long. When a company’s network and data are compromised, less than best practices will be criticized in the media, in the court room, and, as in the Yahoo case, impact executive pay. Avaya Surge Release 2.0, scheduled for the second quarter of 2017, adds IPSec encryption and tunneling to an IP-only deployment. (IPSec will be available for SDN Fx deployments as well.)

A HyperSec gateway is deployed to coordinate the IPSec functionality with the Open Networking Adapters. The HyperSec gateway terminates the IPSec connection from the Adapters and directs the data to the correct VLAN to reach the target application server. Return data is encrypted and sent to the appropriate Adapter, which terminates and forwards the data to the IoT device. The addition of the HyperSec gateway adds encryption to the data on the network, while adding mobility to the solution. The Adapter is able to dynamically create the IPSec tunnel to the HyperSec gateway, reducing manual network management.

The HyperSec gateway is deployed as an active/standby pair. Each Adapter will be set up with primary/secondary tunnels. If the primary is not available, the Adapter will communicate over the secondary tunnel to the HyperSec gateway. The HyperSec cluster is headless. Configuration information is maintained in the Surge IoT Controller. This greatly simplifies scale-out clustering of the HyperSec gateway.

I will blog more about the HyperSec solution closer to availability. Keep in mind that you can get started with Avaya Surge on an IP network today and add IPSec when it becomes available. Also, it is not an all-or-nothing solution. Critical IoT components and services go through the HyperSec gateway and less critical and stationary workloads are deployed with IP and VLANs. Furthermore, SDN Fx fabric can be incrementally added to portions of the IoT portfolio to gain the value of hyper-segmentation, native stealth, and automatic elasticity.

Look at all of this through a different lens. I was talking to a friend, an intellectual property rights attorney, about the exposure that companies face from data breaches. It was one of those conversations where he wanted to know more about the technology and I was curious about his perspective as someone who makes money from a company’s problems. He was especially interested because legal firms are getting $500K to $2.5M for a simple breach defense. When looking at these numbers, I think that even if a company isn’t found culpable in a data breach, they could spend a lot of money in defense. So, it’s probably best to invest in the infrastructure to deploy IoT projects in a safe and sane manner.

In my recent blogs about the IoT, I’ve looked at how the IoT enables Digital Transformation and examined a business-first approach to IoT technology adoption. Then I looked at how Avaya’s SDN FxTM provides a foundation for a safe and sane IoT deployment. Finally, I introduced the Avaya Surge™ Solution, which extends network fabric to IoT devices and provides centralized device management, protection, and flow filtering.

Avaya Surge™ Solution Makes Securing the IoT Easy for All Devices

Let’s explore how you can manage thousands of IoT devices while protecting your network and data from unnecessary risk. Often, we think newer devices will be more secure than older ones that were network-enabled before the current threat profile. However, Gartner predicts devices will remain unsecured for quite some time. The Avaya Surge™ Solution makes securing the IoT easy for all devices.

Avaya Surge, recently named a 2017 Gold Edison Award winner, consists of an IoT controller and an Open Networking Adapter, which is a proxy for IoT endpoints and provides the programmable security for insecure devices.

Key Attributes of Avaya Surge

  • Automated onboarding of IoT devices
  • Inventory reporting, including real-time status
  • MAC-based device security
  • Traffic flow filtering
  • Tight integration with Avaya SDN Fx (but works with any IP network)
  • IPSec encryption and tunneling in release 2.0 (coming in the second half of 2017)

How Avaya Surge Works

  1. An Open Networking Adapter is paired with an IoT device on the IoT controller by matching the serial number of Adapter (or QR code) to the MAC address of the IoT device. The IoT Controller sees the Adapter/IoT device as an inseparable pair and manages the IoT device through the Adapter.
  2. The IoT device is connected to the Adapter which is connected to the edge switch (plug RJ45 connectors together).
  3. The Adapter uses DHCP and DNS to locate the IoT Controller. The Adapter negotiates security keys with the IoT Controller and the onboarding process begins.
  4. The IoT Controller looks up the profile identified for the device type connected to the Adapter and down loads it to the Adapter. The profile contains network configuration, service requirements and allowable flows.
  5. The IoT device establishes connection to its application server and the Adapter begins monitoring network traffic.

Key Operational Benefits of Avaya Surge

  • The Adapter doesn’t retain profile information through a power cycle. If an Adapter is disconnected from the network or loses power, data in memory is lost. When power is returned, the Adapter must connect to the IoT controller to get its profile to function. Avaya Surge will indicate the Adapter/IoT device has lost network connectivity. Without a valid registration, the Adapter does nothing. Network or profile information can’t be learned from a stolen Adapter.
  • The Adapter is based on white list security. When the Adapter boots, it doesn’t allow traffic from the IoT device. The profile provides a white list of approved devices and flows. For instance, if the only IP addresses that an IoT device is supposed to contact are its application server and network services (DHCP, DNS, etc.), the Adapter will block all other traffic. This prevents a compromised device from infecting its peers.
  • The Adapter has a learning mode. A profile can be complex to create. Therefore, the Adapter can be set to accept all traffic and mirror it to the IoT controller. The IoT device operates normally with Avaya Surge cataloging the traffic. This allows the IoT device to operate normally under the supervision of IT staff. When adequate time has passed (dependent on device operation), the captured traffic is converted to a reusable profile that becomes the standard for all like devices. The Adapter is taken out of learning mode, updated with the new profile, and a new device has been added to the network—safely and sanely. Under normal circumstances, the IoT Controller receives reports only from the Adapter and isn’t in the data path.
  • The profile stops MAC spoofing. If all the Adapter did was lock down a MAC address, an antagonist could disconnect the IoT device and connect a computer with the same MAC address. Technically, the Adapter will allow this to happen. However, as soon at the antagonist tries to do something that the IoT device isn’t normally allowed to do, the Adapter will block the traffic and report an abnormal flow attempt to the IoT Controller. One of the issues with IoT is many devices can’t be physically secured and are susceptible to tampering. Avaya Surge addresses this challenge.
  • The inventory addresses all use cases. IoT devices will be deployed within an organization across many use cases and application stacks. For example, a facility may have point-of-sale terminals: CCTV cameras, HVAC sensors and controls, security key pads and door controllers, medical devices, robots, assembly stations, and more. Each of these is deployed with its own application servers with device status monitoring and inventory management. Avaya Surge provides network IT with a single pane status for all IoT devices that are secured with Adapters within the infrastructure.
  • Avaya Surge supports device mobility. Devices can be automatically moved from one network port to another. The Adapter contains OVS 2.4 code, including support for Auto-attach (IEEE 802.1Qcj). Auto-attach provides the ability for the Adapter to signal Avaya Fabric Attach to create the required services on the edge switch, such as VLAN and ISID mapping. If a device needs to be moved, a technician would simply unplug the Adapter from the switch, move the device and Adapter to the new location, and plug the Adapter into the new port. When the Adapter is unplugged, the Adapter loses its profile and the SDN Fx network disables the services to the old port. When the Adapter is reconnected, it contacts the IoT Controller to get its profile and the OVS requests the services be provisioned on the new port. Within a couple of minutes, the IoT device is functioning in its new location and the move has been done safely, sanely and without Networking IT involved. Note that networking IT would have been notified when the Adapter was disconnected and reconnected through the Avaya Surge dashboard.

In my recent blogs about the IoT, I’ve looked at how the IoT enables Digital Transformation and examined a business-first approach to IoT technology adoption. Then I looked at how Avaya’s SDN FxTM provides a foundation for a safe and sane IoT deployment. Next in this blog series, I’ll explore deploying Avaya Surge in a non-SDN Fx IP network.

Secure IoT Deployments with Avaya SDN Fx™ Architecture Solutions

Let’s look at how to deploy the IoT in a safe and sane manner—a top-of-mind business challenge. Before diving into the technology, let’s remember why secure IoT deployments are so important. The Yahoo breach is a lesson learned: Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer lost $12M in bonuses over the Yahoo data breach and Yahoo paid $16M to investigate the breach and cover legal expenses as of March 2, 1017. It’s clear that the cost of not building a safe infrastructure is much more than the cost to build one.

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is sometimes over-hyped. At a base level, separating the control plane from the data plane makes sense (if one understands the definitions of a data plane and control plane). In a practical sense, it means the network infrastructure doesn’t need to be managed on a node-by-node basis (i.e., logging into network devices on each end of the cable to make complementary changes to configure a network link). This is where SDN can be over-hyped. The SDN solution automates the process of making the changes to each end of the cable, making the network easier to manage. But, it doesn’t reduce the complexity, increase the resiliency (other than reduce outages due to typing errors), or make it easier to troubleshoot or expand.

Avaya SDN FxTM Architecture is based on fabric, not network technology. The architecture was designed to be managed as an entity of subcomponents and not a bunch of nodes that are interconnected to create a larger entity. In other words, it’s like designing something to manage a forest, as opposed to managing the trees. Would you really want to manage a forest one tree at a time?

How SDN Fx Architecture Benefits the IoT

Although the SDN Fx network architecture wasn’t specifically designed for the IoT, it works well for providing a solid foundation to deploy IoT solutions. These are the key components of the SDN Fx Architecture that benefit the IoT:

Avaya Fabric Connect is Avaya’s implementation of Shortest Path Bridging (SPB/IEEE 802.1aq). SPB replaces the traditional network stack, greatly simplifying network configuration, management and security. Three key benefits of Fabric Connect apply directly to IoT deployment use case:

  • Hyper-Segmentation: SPB supports 16 million+ network segments. In theory, every IoT device on a network could have its own segment. More realistically, every device type can have its own segment. For instance, HVAC could be one network, security cameras could be on another, employees on a third, guests on a fourth, etc. It’s worth noting that the NSA sees segmenting IoT networks as a key to limiting exposure of IoT deployments. (In my next blog, I’ll examine how Avaya solutions provide security between devices on the same segment.)
  • Automatic Elasticity: Services in SPB are provisioned at the edge without touching the core of the network. This makes it very straightforward to provision network services for the hundreds or thousands of IoT devices that the business wants up and running yesterday. Plus, edge provisioning makes moving devices simple. When a device is disconnected from the network, the network service to that port is disabled and eliminates open holes in the network security. When the device is connected to the same or different port, the device is authenticated and services are automatically configured for the port.
  • Native Stealth: SPB operates at the Ethernet, not the IP layer. For example, if a would-be hacker gains access to one segment of a traditional network, they can go IP-snooping to discover the network architecture. A traditional network is only as secure as the least secure segment/component. With Fabric Connect, if a security loophole is overlooked in a less important network project, there isn’t a back door to access the rest of the network and the corporate data.

Avaya Fabric Extend provides the ability to extend an SPB fabric across a non-fabric network, such as IP core, between campuses over Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), or out to the cloud over WAN. IoT deployments enable the phased adoption of SDN Fx so that IoT projects can gain the values above, without ripping and replacing significant network infrastructure or affecting non-IoT workloads.

Avaya Fabric Attach automates the elasticity of the SPB fabric for IoT devices and other devices supporting Automatic Attachment (IEEE 802.1Qcj). Fabric Attach allows the device to signal the network that it needs in order to connect to a service. If the device is authorized, the service is automatically provisioned. When the device is disconnected, the service is terminated. If the device is moved to a different network port, the service will be provisioned automatically to the new port. This makes deploying and moving Fabric Attach-enabled devices very simple. For a real-world example, see how Axis Communications is starting to deploy Fabric Attach in their IoT devices.

Avaya Open Networking Adapters—an Open Network Adapter is a small device that sits in-line with an IoT device to provide programmable security for IoT devices that lack adequate network security. One component of the solution is Fabric Attach, which provides automated service provisioning and mobility to devices that don’t have the auto-attach capability. (I’ll explore more about the power of Open Networking Adapters in an upcoming blog.)

The Avaya Identity Engines Portfolio provides powerful tools for managing user and device access to a network, commonly referred to as Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. In the IoT use case, Identity Engines authenticate a device by MAC address or MAC address group and use predefined policies for the device type to dynamically configure services. For instance, a camera could be assigned to Video VLAN 30 and provisioned for multicast, while a phone would be authenticated, assigned to VLAN 20, and configured for SIP communications. This provides security for unauthorized devices joining the network and provides automatic segmentation based on device type and service requirements.

I’m not sure if there ever was a time when network design and implementation was static, but there was a time when the devices connected to the network could be predicted: servers, printers, storage, PCs, etc. With IoT, IT is being asked to design networks for devices that haven’t been thought of yet. The old network technologies were designed for mobility by work order, and IT was able to list the number of device types that wouldn’t work on the network. SDN Fx provides a true software-defined network and not software-defined automation on old network constructs. A fabric network has the intrinsic flexibility and security required for tomorrow’s IoT projects, today.

In my recent blogs about the IoT, I’ve looked at how the IoT enables Digital Transformation and examined a business-first approach to IoT technology adoption. Next in this blog series, I’ll explore the newest component of the SDN Fx solution for the IoT, the Avaya Surge™ Solution.