How to Improve 112, the EU’s Emergency Dispatch Number

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February 11th is European 112 Day.

‘112’ is the common European emergency number in official use across 28 EU member states, and most countries surrounding the EU (including the UK).

While a few countries—such as Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Portugal, and Romania—have 112 as the sole emergency number in practice, the vast majority of countries across Europe have a second, legacy number in place, such as ‘999’ in the UK.

112

There remains a great deal of work to be done in future-proofing emergency call technology in the EU.

Related article: Testing 112/999 Calls in Europe

Since Europe’s adoption of ‘112’ in the 1990s, Avaya—with our strong heritage in best-practice routing principles—has acted as a primary provider for command and control room call centers for the 112 emergency number and many other local emergency numbers.

Working together with the European Emergency Number Association (EENA), local governments, and public safety agencies, we are committed to developing and providing Next-Generation 112 Emergency Services today.

Furthering that goal, I am delighted to announce that I have just been named the acting co-vice-chair of the NG112 committee—driving EENA’s Next-Generation initiative with acting co-vice-chair James Winterbottom, and acting NG112 committee chair Wolfgang Kampichler.

Challenges for NG112

In the EU, political and country borders can potentially present a challenge when discussing public safety interoperability and technology. Part of EENA’s mission is to facilitate that interoperability.

While the European authorities have competence control over some telecommunications issues, 112 is handled and managed by the member states, according to individual country laws and guidelines.

This lack of overall control has resulted in a service level that may differ from country to country, depending on specific demands, notably the ability to connect via other services (such as SMS or Real-Time Text) as well as access technology being more limited in some areas than others.

In certain countries, immediate action is necessary, as some of the national network service providers are likely to sunset their ISDN networks and move to IP-based connectivity at the edge of their networks within the next 5 years.

These issues must be addressed as part of NG112.

The good news is that most countries that have implemented 112 services are currently working toward common next-generation concepts, which will result in a far more harmonized system in the near future.

Location a Key Concern

One of the most important challenges we face when considering the future of 112 is the issue of the caller’s location. No matter where you are in the world, the first question that every emergency dispatcher asks is, ‘Where are you located?’

That issue could potentially be solved by smartphones that have always-on location sensors. However, that location data is still unable to pass through the national emergency service providers’ networks.

A second consideration is that nontraditional multimedia sessions (such as IM, SMS and social media) need to be taken into account, as people—young people in particular—make fewer calls and are increasingly likely to connect to emergency services via alternative methods.

Video support would be a useful addition to next-generation emergency call support. Deaf and hard-of-hearing people, deaf-blind people and people with speech disabilities could communicate via sign language, or be connected to an interpreter via their screen.

Another innovation, where guidelines and rules are currently under consideration by EENA, is an emergency smartphone app that will allow a user to provide the dispatcher with live video footage, as well as other multimedia, so that a Control Room could see firsthand what is happening, ensuring the correct response team gets engaged.

Proof of Concept OK’d

Following extensive lobbying from EENA in the last weeks of 2013, the European Commission put a budget in place for a demonstrator and proof-of-concept of the NG112 project by the year 2015.

This is a huge achievement, when you consider the scale and necessary upgrades that many different national systems will need to put in place for the concept to become reality.

Of course, a demo of the new concepts will also allow industry innovators such as Avaya, our DevConnect Partner Community, and EENA, to understand the full impact that new systems might have on the industry as a whole, and guide recommendations on legislation and standards.

While it may be too soon to say definitively, I’m hopeful that within the next several years, Next-Generation 112 services will be a reality across the EU.

Even better, it is entirely plausible that one day there will be a more global view of the emergency number. Rather than specific numbers used in specific countries, ideally the most widely-used emergency numbers (911 and 112) would be valid across the planet on a range of devices, as recently recommended by the IETF.

On the 11th of February, help us celebrate 112 awareness across the European Union, in an effort to promote a safe environment for all.

Tony O Brien (EENA)

“Observing the European 112 Day every year, on 11 February, since 2009, is crucial for promoting 112,” said Deputy Director of EENA, Tony O’Brien. “Still, more has to be done to communicate it at an EU level, in order to stop the static and reversing awareness trends. Along with the Member-States’ promotion efforts, strengthened European Commission support to improve the awareness levels and quality of service of 112 would be of great benefit to the European citizens and our emergency services.”

I couldn’t agree more, and I’m looking forward to helping raise that level of awareness, through my various educational events and venues throughout the year, including the European Emergency Number Association 2014 Workshop in Warsaw, Poland, where I will be presenting with my colleague Markus Bornheim from Frankfurt.

Also read: Is 112 Another Number of 911? No!


Want more technology, news and information from Avaya? Be sure to check out the Avaya Podcast Network landing page at http://avaya.com/APN. There, you will find additional podcasts from industry events, such as Avaya Evolutions and INTEROP, as well as other informative series by the APN staff.

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Thanks for stopping by and reading the Avaya Connected blog on E9-1-1. I value your opinions, so please feel free to comment below or, if you prefer, email me privately.

Public comments, suggestions, corrections and loose change is all graciously accepted 😉

Until next week… dial carefully.

Be sure to follow me on Twitter @Fletch911

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Why the UK Needs Mobile Geolocation for 112 Right Now

Fletch: Hey. It’s Fletch with the Avaya Podcast Network. Welcome to this addition of TechTalk. Joining me today is Markus Bornheim, who’s the Public Safety Consulting Architect over in Europe. Markus welcome.

Markus Bornheim: Hey. Welcome Fletch.

Fletch: Also joining us is a brand new member to the team. Adrian Brookes, or I should say Officer Brookes, out of London. Welcome.

Adrian Brookes: Hi Fletch. Welcome.

Fletch: We’ll get to that in just a second. Public safety is constantly expanding at Avaya. We’re doing a lot of work in the global market, especially over in Europe. Markus, what are we doing over in EU as far as some of our public safety offers?

Markus Bornheim: What we are recently doing is running a lot of technologies into the PSAPs, so it’s the telephony platform that we have been dealing with historically. When we were … not when we were Avaya, and when we were Tenovis, so that’s quite a huge installed customer base in every country with different systems.

What we’re going to do in the future is bring these systems to life in a next-generation environment, which allows us much more, and much easier, to collaborate with people calling to emergency services through different media, and different channels.

Fletch: Yeah. It’s becoming more of a multimedia environment, right? So, this is where our contact center technology kind of really kicks in, where we can deal with that multimedia aspect of people that need assistance.

Markus Bornheim: Yes, in fact that’s true. Currently, my impression is that many of the authorities are basically quite blind behind the voice call, and they need to ask a lot of questions about getting a precise picture on what is happening on scene. This definitely can be changed by bringing in other media in the future. Bringing in location-aware services, and all these kinds of things that make life easier.

Fletch: Yeah. Public safety is kind of a unique market, and if you haven’t been in that market, if you haven’t worked in that field, I don’t think you can see a lot of value. That’s one of the reasons that we brought on Adrian. Adrian you’re a constable in the UK. Correct?

Adrian Brookes: That’s right. Yes. For 20 years now I’ve been a warranted police officer, as well as working in technology industry, so I’ve got some practical, real horror stories of being at the front line.

Related article: How to Improve 112, the EU’s Emergency Dispatch Number

Fletch: Give us an example of some of those … some of the inefficiencies that exist out there in public safety today.

Adrian Brookes: Hopefully, you would have all been aware recently of the flooding that we had in the UK. I actually police in the Southeastern area of the UK, the one that was hit the most severely by the flooding.

One of the examples we had, I was on, was called Response Patrol. We respond to the 911, the 112, or the 999 calls that are coming in. We’re the first point of interaction between the caller who’s requesting assistance, and some form of the help being given to them.

We had a call come in. It came in at just after 10:00 o’clock at night in Sussex, and it was a female who was distressed. She was actually stuck in a field. She’d inadvertently taken a turn in her vehicle, and driven into a farmer’s field, and driven into a whole load of mud where the water was rising.

The water was rising at quite a fast rate. This is in some respects a lifesaving environment, but we had to find her. She put the call in. The call came through to the Sussex contact center, and they couldn’t locate her.

She had an idea of where she was because her TomTom was telling her that she was in a specific village. We were the closest unit. We are actually on scene in just over a minute. The problem being though, she wasn’t where she thought she was. She was being given inaccurate information from her TomTom.

It then took the combined services of the police and other agencies, over two-and-a-half hours to find that lady. When the lady was found, she was distressed. She was cold. She was wet, and she had a really poor view of the help that she had summoned.

That’s just one of the environments that we’ve been in where there’s lots of technology around, but people aren’t using it. People aren’t piecing that together to actually find out how we can assist those people.

Fletch: I think we get a little spoiled over here in the States where we’ve got … or I should say, we think we have fairly good cell phone accuracy, but as it turns out that accuracy is not quite as good as we thought it was. It’s nowhere near what you don’t have over across the pond, right? You guys basically have nothing over there at this point.

Adrian Brookes: We can locate a phone when we have a missing person. We can at some point throughout the investigation, then turn around and say, “We need to do the mobile record logs,” but we have to get a warrant. In the UK, that’s called RIPA warrant. That has to be signed not only by a superintendent, or a very senior police official, but it has to be countersigned by a magistrate. This is all down to basically your human rights, the Human Rights Act in the UK.

What the affect it actually has, it just delays us getting the information that is readily available. One of the things we’ve actually resorted to doing is saying to people, if they’re using an iPhone, “Can we have your Apple ID and password?” Because we can actually get the location from “Find My iPhone.”

That’s a ridiculous place to be as a police officer standing in the middle of an environment trying to render assistance to somebody.

Fletch: Yeah, especially when you’re asking somebody for their Apple ID and password. Good golly. I could only imagine what’s going through people’s heads.

When you deal with mobile technology, over here we have OnStar, which is an in-vehicle crash notification system. Over in Europe we’re making some progress … EENA is making some progress with what’s called eCall. Right Markus?

Markus Bornheim: Yes. That’s true.

Fletch: What are we doing with the eCall infrastructure over there?

Markus Bornheim: The eCall is something that is mandatory from probably October 2015 onwards. When this is in place, it’s a Pan-European initiative driven by the European Parliament and Commission.

When this is in place, we will have the capability to automatically raise an alarm call when a car is involved in an accident. This, of course, is getting a very quick notification to emergency services. This is a voice call to 112 basically, and through the open voice channel delivering information about where the car is based on GPS, the vehicle identification number of the car so you know what that car is, and potentially also about the number of people sitting in the car.

Fletch: So there’s a minimum set of data, or an MSD, that’s actually transmitting.

Markus Bornheim: Correct. Yeah. This is the case. It’s an upfront to the communication. It’s transmitted automatically, and once that information is passed over to the public safety answering point, the call is then switched to voice mode, and the call taker can start talking to the people in the car.

Fletch: It’s delivered kind of through an in-band technology, which is a little archaic in today’s age, but being archaic, it’s also very compatible with almost any device that’s out there.

Markus Bornheim: Well, I think it’s robust. I think this is something that we need to consider. Robustness, over technology that is already 20 years in place, is something that can be very compelling in new networks that will be rolled out. Not saying that this is the final stage, but we would see also the mobile service providers networks move to IP overall also for voice.

We will also see that new elements, and new protocols are going to be developed as a next-generation eCall kind of approach to be delivered maybe in 10 years from now.

Fletch: Sure. Next-generation 112 services are certainly on the front page of what European Emergency Number Association, or EENA, is doing. In fact, we’ve got a conference coming up in Warsaw, Poland. Adrian, I heard you just got travel approval to join us over there.

Adrian Brookes: Yeah. I did, but I’m not in the same hotels as you guys. Yeah. I will be there. One of the things I’m going to be doing there is meeting up with the British Association of Public Safety Communications Officials (B-APCO) representatives.
That’s a UK organization that is trying to put together really some awareness to the various forces, but then to the application providers out there. Trying to pull the two of them together. As an example, 67% of the calls that come to emergency services in the UK are from mobile phones.

It basically equates to about 75,000 calls per day. On average, when that call comes in from a mobile user, it’s actually taking 30 seconds longer before the dispatcher can actually dispatch help to them. That’s because they’re trying to figure out where they are.

One of the things that we’re trying to do with B-APCO is to really raise awareness with the application providers with the forces themselves. Trying to reduce that time. London Ambulance Service found that 4,000 calls a month take more than three-and-a-half minutes before they can dispatch help to that person because they’re trying to find out where they are. Why can’t we just get that information?

Fletch: Wait, wait. You’re saying that it takes three-and-a-half minutes just to figure out where to dispatch the call?

Adrian Brookes: Exactly. London is a multicultural city. People are coming in. They don’t know where they are. They don’t know where to look for the road signs.

If they have an accident, and they’re from out-of-town, you’re in a completely different environment. You don’t know where you are. A lot of things that the contact center agents are trained to do is try to get them to pick out landmarks.

Things like “Find my iPhone” can pinpoint you within a 2- to 5-meter environment. We’re still having to ask people, “Can you describe what you can see?” “Where are you?”

Fletch: Where the biggest problem is you people drive on the wrong side of the street Adrian. That’s the root cause.

Adrian Brookes: Let’s just have a little think about that one. Which country’s got the longest history?

Fletch: There you go. I give.

Adrian Brookes: Yeah.

Fletch: Well it will be great to finally meet you over in Warsaw. Markus it will be fantastic. We met last year at the EENA conference in Riga, Latvia, and we’ve done quite a bit over the last year.

The team keeps growing, and growing. I’m really excited. There’s a lot of great opportunities over in Europe, and it’s really exciting to see the Avaya technology being put to use in several environments over there.

Thanks very much for joining me guys. Markus, we’ll see you shortly. Adrian welcome to the team.

Markus Bornheim: Yes, and Adrian, don’t worry about the wrong hotel, just give us your Apple ID and password. We’ll locate you.

Adrian Brookes: Yeah. I don’t think that’s going to happen, guys.

Fletch: Good one. Take care, guys. Have a great day.


Want more technology, news and information from Avaya? Be sure to check out the Avaya Podcast Network landing page at http://avaya.com/APN. There, you will find additional podcasts from industry events, such as Avaya Evolutions and INTEROP, as well as other informative series by the APN staff.

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Thanks for stopping by and reading the Avaya Connected blog on E911. I value your opinions, so please feel free to comment below or, if you prefer, you can email me privately.

Public comments, suggestions, corrections and loose change is all graciously accepted 😉 Until next week. . . dial carefully.

Be sure to follow me on Twitter at @Fletch911

Fletch_Sig.png

NG911: Too Little Data – 2ManyApps?

This Avaya CONNECTED Blog
is also available as an MP3 Audio File


NG911 promises to bring public safety into the 20th century from a communications perspective. In the legacy E911 network, we are limited to analog-based voice only communications, and the location data is tied directly to a telephone number, which in today’s environment, is one of the last pieces of data that is relevant to a location of the communications device. In 2011, NENA, the National Emergency Number Association, published their specification 08-003 as the Detailed Functional and Interface Standard for the NENA i3 Solution. The specification built upon prior NENA publications including i3 requirements and architecture documents.

In version 1 of this document the i3 solution supports end to end IP connectivity with gateways used to accommodate legacy wireline and wireless origination networks that are non-IP. It also introduced the concept of an Emergency Services IP network or ESInet. The ESInet is an IP-based internetwork (network of networks) that is shared by all public safety agencies, and eventually provide coverage coast-to-coast, internationally, and ultimately around the globe.

The value behind the ESInet to public safety, is as great as the Internet was to the general public. It wasn’t that long ago that data was not easily shareable between two points on the planet. Today, with Facebook, Twitter and the thousand other social media outlets, sharing data has become a ubiquitous part of our daily lives.

It only makes sense that social media, and the additional data that it carries, will become part of our public safety networks. Yet another reason that our current legacy E911 infrastructure is unable to perform its required task of connecting the general public with public safety using the forms of communication that are in common use.

Avaya-WiFi-iStock_000015729094Medium.jpgThis change in the data that we want to communicate with public safety, as well as the mechanisms in which we communicate that information, has created a technology gap between the people who need help, and the people that can provide that help. 2012 saw the emergence of several Personal Emergency Applications or PEAs (pronounced peas) trying to capture the popular App market. Unfortunately for the developers of these applications, they were quickly shunned by the emergency services community, as quite often the developers did not take into consideration the public safety side of the application. One particular application, CrimeWatch, provided users with a simple one touch interface for police, fire, and medical assistance. Not a bad deal for $.99, right? The only problem is, that application had no connectivity to the public safety network, and when a user used it, after entering in all of the pertinent data, it offered to dial 911. This horror story quickly circled the public safety community, and the application got an incredible amount of that press.

In another incident, concerns were raised about letters that were sent by 911 Emergency Assist (911 EA) to many PSAPs advising them of the launch of their product. The letter was worded in such a way that led several 911 administrators to believe this product was more than it actually was, and NENA had to step in and “assist” in addressing PSAPs training and how they are marketing their product.

[Ed. Note: A recent Google search on Crime Watch and 911 EA came back with dead links]

As the NENA i3 framework continues to evolve, version 2 of this specification adds in additional functionality and, among other things, the concept of additional data. Additional data about a 911 call can be provided in the form of a SIP URI that the public safety answer point can query for more details about a specific call event. One of the primary challenges of this topology is the sheer number of endpoints where that additional data can exist. To solve this problem, Additional Data Aggregators have emerged that provide common collection points and repositories that the public and public safety can access to store and retrieve additional information data.

One example of an Additional Data Aggregator is Smart911, by Rave Mobile Security. Another, is Safetown by public safety CAD system manufacturer, InterAct.

Although similar in nature, core differences exist between each solution. And with the lack of an industry “standard”, there could be significant operational differences. In examining both solutions, the primary difference is: where the data is stored. Smart911 is made up of two components. The first is a scalable method for public safety to allow citizens to opt in to providing critical information. The second is a scalable and secure method for aggregating data from external sources and displaying it in the proper context during the call taking process. No matter where I travel if the PSAP uses Smart911, my profile will be available.

Safetown, on the other hand is tied to a specific computer aided dispatch or CAD system, and is typically stored locally. Although similar data is provided by both systems, the inherent problem is sharing that data across to regional boundaries or with different CAD systems within a single jurisdiction for example fire and police. Unless agencies share their network and data with each other, my personal profile data, although useful locally, is not available to other agencies outside of my area.

Not an issue for location specific data, as my home and office are fixed points, but my personal data is relevant anywhere I go in the US, or globally for that matter.

The purpose of this blog is not to compare these two companies against each other, or any others that are barking upConcerned Operator 2.gif this new tree of opportunity. The point that I’m bringing out is that additional data is going to become a big part of next generation 911 and that universal guidance on accessing that data is going to become a paramount problem for the 6100 public safety answer points, as well as training for the 200,000 911 call takers in the US alone. There simply is no room for vendor specific applications and processes. The collection, correlation, and presentation of this information needs to be standardized and promulgated throughout the industry.

Ask anyone at NENA or EENA; The emergency network in the US as well as the EU is on the verge of a radical change in technology. For most of us, social media, collaboration, video conferencing, and living in a “connected world” is of no consequence to our daily existence. Public safety on the other hand has been relegated to using 1970s technology for the last 45 years, and needs to play catch-up fairly quickly. Fortunately, the first wave of “connected citizens” are now of age and actively working in this industry. Many of them have even obtained positions in their agencies where their new way of thinking can make a radical change. Just as we saw voice over IP become the new paradigm in communications over the last few decades, next generation emergency services, and the vast amounts of additional data that will be brought along with it, will form the framework of the next paradigm of public safety communications.
Avaya-NG911-Van-iStock_000012811450Medium.jpg
How lucky are we to be able to watch its birth, and evolution?


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Thanks for stopping by and reading the Avaya CONNECTED Blog on E9-1-1, I value your opinions, so please feel free to comment below or if you prefer, you can email me privately.

Public comments, suggestions, corrections and loose change is all graciously accepted 😉
Until next week. . . dial carefully.

Be sure to follow me on Twitter @Fletch911

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Is 1-1-2 another number for 9-1-1? NO!

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Logo_EENA_20100929.pngOne of the recent Internet rumors floating around is that 112 in the United States, is an alternate number that can be used to reach public safety for urgent, but not life-threatening issues. The problem is, on some carriers, in some areas, dialing 112 on your cellular phone may actually reach public safety. In other areas, you may receive a fast busy signal, or a rejection message.

What often confuses users, are the stories of where 112 actually connected people with public safety. But the fact of the matter is that, even though the device may recognize it as an emergency number, and the cellular network has provisions within its numbering and routing plan to accept 112, in the end it’s being converted to 911 prior to delivery to the E911 network. In fact, the 911 call taker has absolutely no indication if a caller dialed the digits 911, or dialed 112.

You see, in the PSTN network, the actual number dialed is simply a call pointer to the 911 network and ultimately the local PSAP. In actuality, the number that was dialed, is completely irrelevant. But it makes for a good story, and after all we have to keep the Twitter-verse alive and buzzing in 140 character snippets.

It’s really the same thing if you were to program 112 as an alternative emergency number in your PBX. This can easily be done in the Avaya CM and CS1000, and prior to sending the call down a trunk facility, you simply retranslate the digits 112 into 911 so the PSTN network carrier can then recognize the call as an emergency, and do it’s job routing the call to the appropriate PSAP.

Telephone numbers are really too 80s-ish for me though. At some point in time, in the not too distant future, they will probably just go away, and be replaced with DNS names for people and something more universal like SOS for emergency calls. To make this a reality, next generation Emergency Services IP Networks (ESInet) will need to exist, and be interconnected, from a local, regional and global perspective.

What’s happening across the pond?

While the National Emergency Number Association (NENA) is diligently working on their version of the NENA i3 framework, the European Emergency Number Association (EENA), released an updated version of the Next Generation 112 Long Term Definition standard also known as “NG112 LTD”. If you’re interested in owning your own copy, simply go to their websites and download a copy as they are publicly available at no charge. Although the NG112LTD is clearly a European centric document, there is tremendous synergy with the US document, and efforts are being maintained to keep these two specifications in alignment with each other.

This is witnessed by the fact that several NENA key players are also participants in EENA and the updated version of the NG 112 LTD, reflects the current standards specifications methodologies and updates which were recently made to NENA’s i3 specification.

Want to find out more, and looking for a cool place to go? On April 17 through the 19th, EENA will be hosting their EU Emergency Services Workshop 2013, in beautiful Riga, Latvia. At this conference, you will see another parallel agenda in Europe that is location discovery and reporting of MLTS/PBX, extension numbers in large buildings and campuses.

In an effort to bring additional education, and lessons learned here from our activities in the United States, Avaya, along with DevConnect and Select Product Partner, Conveyant Systems, Inc. Will be panelists on a workshop discussing enterprise-based location challenges for fixed and nomadic IP devices, wireless LAN phones, and even digital and analog devices. Utilizing information provided by elements within the network, provisioning data from the PBX, and the correlation of that information with external databases including LDAP, active directory, and cable plant databases to name just a few.

APN_ATF2013.JPG

APN, the Avaya Podcast Network, has been on the road this past month, and will continue to do so as we make appearances and sponsor live events, such as ATF 2013 Orlando, Avaya Evolutions Jamaica and Evolutions New York City. Will be launching a brand-new landing page with all of our podcast series including E911 Talk, Avaya Tech Talk with Guy Clinch, and others that are currently in production review. You can follow us on Twitter @Avaya_APN as well as #APNpodcast where we will have details posted about events and shows.

911 Goes to Washington is March 17 -19, sponsored by the NENA, and although we won’t have the APN podcast gear on-site, we will certainly be taking notes and providing updates on Twitter.

Special thanks to our bandwidth and media storage sponsor Cachefly.com , and to the folks at Player.FM that provide the front end hosting for APN, the Avaya Podcast Network. Don’t forget you can follow me on Twitter @Fletch911, and if you have any comments, questions or random thoughts that you need an outlet for, feel free to send us an email or leave a comment.


Want more on E9-1-1?  E9-1-1 Talk Podcast
Subscribe to my weekly E9-1-1 Talk Podcast here

Thanks for stopping by and reading the Avaya CONNECTED Blog on E9-1-1, I value your opinions, so please feel free to comment below or if you prefer, you can email me privately.

Public comments, suggestions, corrections and loose change is all graciously accepted 😉
Until next week. . . dial carefully.

Be sure to follow me on Twitter @Fletch911

Fletch_Sig.png 


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CacheFly is the world’s fastest CDN, delivering rich-media content up to 10x faster than traditional delivery methods.
With a proven track record and over a decade’s worth of CDN experience, companies around the world choose the CacheFly CDN for reliable and unbeatable performance. For more information, visit www.cachefly.com