PSTN Abandonment: Is it happening?

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What was once a 20 year life cycle for core networking switched voice equipment (the central office) has been reduced to 10 years, or even less. When you reduce a piece of equipment’s natural lifespan, you increase the monthly cost of its amortization accordingly.

Decreasing Equipment Lifecycles
Based on simple math alone, if you bought a “box” to provide a service to your customers, and the life expectancy of that box was 20 years, you could easily calculate your cost per month per customer. If, because of new technology, the life expectancy were reduced to five years, your monthly-amortized cost would increase by four times to compensate for that event.

Diminishing Customer Base
Based on simple math alone, if you bought a “box” to provide a service to your customers, and your customer base diminishes by 50%, based on the above “20 year model”, your annual amortized expense would double per customer.

Decreased Support Cost For New Equipment
The legacy network required a trained workforce, roving around in vehicles, full of expensive test equipment. New modern networks can reside in “dark centers” where access to programming and diagnostics is all accomplished remotely through a data connection. This does nothing to reduce the expense of a trained workforce, but it does remove the requirement to have that workforce out in the streets in vehicles. Not only does this eliminate transportation expenses, it reduces the average time to repair since travel is not required.

The Perfect Storm: SANDY
Late in the fall of 2012, Hurricane Sandy barreled its way up the East Coast causing significant damage to our telecommunications infrastructure from Washington DC to New England. It was a classic example of the 100 year storm, and in addition to causing several outages, much of the infrastructure became destroyed. This poses a unique problem to telecommunications carriers like AT&T, Verizon and Century Link. Do they rebuild their aging infrastructure that was just recently amortized off the books, or was just about to be? If they do, they have to start the “20 year clock” all over again, but they are faced with statements that the PSTN will start to go away in five short years. [See my blog at www.Avaya.com/Fletcher – PSTN to end in 2018]

It’s not surprising then why several stories are cropping up like the one about Fire Island, New York, and Verizon attempting to NOT restore the legacy telephone network on copper lines. See the story “Verizon Seeks to Abandon Landlines on Fire Island”, [http://stopthecap.com/2013/03/20/verizon-seeks-to-abandon-landlines-on-fire-island-wireless-or-you-are-on-your-own/].

The story reports that concerned residents may register a complaint either by filling out a complaint form on the New York State Public Service Commission website or calling the NYSPSC directly at (800) 342-3377.

The story also reports that “Verizon officials have defended their decision, claiming a wireless system is more robust and can withstand severe weather better than a wired network.” However, it seems that Verizon lost 25 percent of its landline business in the last two years, as the company claims 80 percent of Verizon-handled calls to and from the island are through Verizon Wireless.

The question that remains, “Does the Verizon Wireless Voice Link service offer the same functionality as traditional land lines?” Apparently, the answer to that question is “NO”. Verizon’s response is that Voice Link is a voice-only product. It does not support advanced services such as:

  • Broadband
  • Telephone modem connections
  • Faxing
  • Alarm monitoring
  • Home medical monitoring
  • TDD/TTY for the hearing impaired or deaf
  • Credit card processing

Once Again E911 is Questionable
Reportedly, it does support E911, however, I would like to know through what mechanism is E911 being supported. If it is being treated as a wired fixed location, then I have a concern with someone moving the service and not updating that location. If it provides E911 through the cellular network, just pick up the newspaper and you will see a plethora of stories with public safety recommending that you NOT use a cellular phone, but instead use a landline phone which by default provides address information to a 911 operator.

Cellular phones do not always use GPS positioning, especially indoors where a GPS signal is not available. In these cases, TDOA (time delay on arrival) algorithms are used to detect the distance of the device from one or more towers, therefore providing a general area. If interpreted incorrectly, public safety may show up at your neighbor’s house, while you lie on the floor unable to move or speak.

Since text messaging to 911 is NOT yet available, the requirement to have an analog line still exists for people who are deaf or hard of hearing and require the use of a TTY or TDD device. Once again a classic example of how this community of people is completely ignored from a technology perspective, and treated like second-class citizens.

Big Brother is NOT Watching
Most of the conspiracy theorists think that there is too much oversight and watching by the government. No matter what side of that argument that you sit on, there is a concern where no government oversight exists. While customers are afforded some level of protection with legacy telephony services and oversight by the Public Service Commission and the FCC, customers will lose that oversight if things go wrong with Voice Link. As it stands today, Voice Link, is an unregulated service not subject to government oversight.

Got a complaint? Call the PSC.
Oh wait, that’s right, you can’t call the PSC, as your phone line is dead.

New England is Not Alone
Hear that rumbling? That’s not the daily thunderstorm rolling through the Sunshine State. It’s Verizon’s “Project Thunder”. It seems that the extensive buried underground facilities are deteriorating beyond repair, and if you are outside of a Fios service area, when you reported trouble on your copper circuit you will be persuaded to move to Voice Link wireless services.

The Crystal Ball Predicts . . .
This evolution of the Public Switched Telephone Network should come as no surprise to anyone. Several articles have been written including this one by Teresa Mastrangelo last July in her article, ” Verizon Getting Aggressive with Copper Plant Shutdown
[http://broadbandtrends.com/blog1/2012/07/23/verizon-getting-aggressive-with-copper-plant-shutdown/]

As published in “BroadbandTrends”:

“Historically, the gating factor to shutting down the PSTN was regulatory. However, Verizon has successfully lobbied in Florida and Virginia and Texas to pass some forms of deregulation, which allows Verizon “to invest where customers want us to invest and start to sunset some of the older technology.” As such, it appears that once FiOS reaches a certain penetration level in a market, the decision is made to migrate all customers towards FiOS as is already happening in markets such as Dallas.”


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Thanks for stopping by and reading the Avaya CONNECTED Blog on E9-1-1, I value your opinions, so please feel free to comment below or if you prefer, you can email me privately.

Public comments, suggestions, corrections and loose change is all graciously accepted 😉
Until next week. . . dial carefully.

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Less Maintenance, More Innovation: How to (Finally) Fill the IT Skills Gap

If you take a good look at how the business ecosystem is evolving, you’ll find that it’s being redefined by five key market trends:

You’d be hard pressed to find research that doesn’t indicate the takeover of these five megatrends.

Forrester, for instance, predicts that machine learning and automation will replace 7% of all U.S. jobs by 2025. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, almost 80% of companies identified digital transformation as their top strategic priority last year. Gartner believes that 70% of all newly deployed apps will run on open source databases by 2018; meanwhile, research continues to show that some 20 to 30 billion objects could be connected to the IoT by 2020.

As these technologies shape our smart digital world, so too do they raise the stakes in terms of customer expectations. Next-generation consumers demand nothing short of a sophisticated digital experience marked by greater quality, agility, speed and contextualization.

The Need to Transform NOW

Driven by these trends, organizations have no choice but to consider how they can adapt to grow and thrive. Competitors are moving at rapid new paces and blazing unforeseen trails. We’re seeing this disruption industry-wide, from companies like Uber and Lyft that have revolutionized the taxi industry (taxi trips have fallen by as much as 30% in cities like L.A.) to Airbnb, which turned the hospitality industry on its head by introducing the concept of an end-to-end digital homestay experience.

Look around and you’ll see just how much your own industry is changing. Do you realize how much new ground is ready to be broken? How much unexplored territory there is to seize? The organizations that thrive will be the first to not only see the possibilities, but successfully execute them. To do so, however, companies must undergo some level of transformation—and IT must be a central part of that transformation.

Elevating IT to Accelerate Business

To enable business to move at a pace that maintains a competitive edge, leaders must ask themselves how they’re empowering their IT staff. As it currently stands, something needs to be done about today’s IT skills gap. What we’re seeing is too many departments tied down to costly, archaic systems that hinder performance and productivity. There are too many people doing the same things and expecting different results. In a world where IT maintenance and innovation must be expertly balanced, teams are working to keep the lights on and not spending enough time learning new technologies and strategies or becoming part of the solution. This has been an ongoing problem that needs to be talked about less and acted on more.

The bottom line is that organizations will only truly accelerate in the digital era if IT spends enough time on strategic initiatives. Consider that 60% of top-performing companies engage IT to gather ideas for innovation, and 49% collect ideas through business unit workshops facilitated by IT. Without question, IT should be factored as a critical part of business innovation.

So, how can businesses free their IT teams to begin innovating? The right technology here is key—specifically, it has to be a combination of business process automation over an automated, end-to-end, meshed networking architecture. Let’s first focus on networking—this open, agile and integrated platform liberates IT by substantially reducing the level of complexity associated with traditional network maintenance, allowing teams to spend more time on high-level strategic initiatives. I’d like to take a look at how such a platform helps fill the IT skills gap from a traditional networking standpoint and outline some of the security benefits this architecture can bring.

Networking

Traditional legacy architecture, often referred to as “client-server” is becoming near obsolete thanks to the proliferation of automation and M2M. But before we jump too quickly, you may remember the resistance from peer-to-peer communication where IT in fact won the battle and for the most part didn’t allow it—simply put, the legacy architecture couldn’t sustain it. As manual processes continue to be replaced by smarter, automated processes, it’s imperative that organizations start thinking differently in terms of networking.

This may mean, for example, seamlessly integrating AI and machine learning into their communications strategy to engage customers with flexible new touch points. This will also likely require the integration of services from several vendors with different capabilities, versus one single provider, hence the importance of having an open ecosystem with standards as much as possible.

Regardless of how organizations go about it, the fact is that they must begin moving their networks in a new direction if they wish to progress at the pace their business needs to. Fully-meshed, end-to-end architecture offers an open ecosystem in which businesses can begin freely automating, integrating and reinventing traditional processes without a high level of complexity. This time freedom enables IT to begin reimagining business outcomes. The use of open, integrated, future-proof technology opens new doors of opportunity to do so.

Security

With billions of IoT devices directly communicating and sharing data, organizations are now operating in an essentially borderless network—or as I like to call it, the everywhere perimeter. While this everywhere perimeter enables organizations to operate with unmatched agility and ease, it can also destroy companies if left unprotected. As one can imagine, the strategy and technology needed to protect a virtually borderless network look drastically different than those protected by a traditional firewall or legacy network architecture (Static VLANs, ACLs). This is exactly why IT needs to flex its strategic muscles and identify a stronger security approach, one that safeguards the organization with a near impenetrable network that significantly minimizes security risks and reduces exposure.

An end-to-end meshed networking architecture lets organizations quickly and securely enable services across the network anywhere they are consumed (i.e., personal mobile device, Wi-Fi hotspot, corporate campus). This is done through end-to-end network segmentation, which is widely considered to be the holy grail of network security today. Comprised of three core components—hyper-segmentation, native stealth and automated elasticity—this solution ensures organizations have the necessary framework for next-generation cybersecurity defense. By minimizing security risks in this way, organizations can ensure they are maximizing the value of IT. Lay the foundation right first, then focus on business process workflow automation. Doing the opposite or simply ignoring the foundation will cause pain and slow down your business transformation while making it extremely difficult to maximize the benefits of, for example, IOT.

In the end, every important business initiative requires time. Organizations won’t be able to reinvent themselves if their IT department has none to spare.

2017 Avaya Customer Innovation Awards Honor Five Companies Leading the Way in Digital Transformation

Every year, Avaya and IAUG recognize a handful of customers who are innovators. These customers are recognized with Customer Innovation Awards. Last year’s award winners included a number of technology firms. This year’s five award winners, recognized on stage at Avaya Engage in Las Vegas, include three customers in the financial services sector, a leading global retailer, and a leader in the film production industry.

Each of these customers is benefiting from the latest Avaya solutions to meet business goals—whether the goals are growth, customer experience, cost management, or risk mitigation.

BECU

BECU, which began life 80 years ago as the Boeing Employee Credit Union, today is the fourth largest credit union in the US, with over $12 billion in assets and over a million credit union members. In 2016, BECU embarked on a digital transformation journey focused on the customer experience. BECU relies on Avaya Elite Multichannel running on an Avaya Pod Fx™ infrastructure.

BECU engineer Rick Webb says, “BECU is rapidly expanding and needed a technology partner that could support that expansion and keep our members happy. The Avaya Elite Multichannel infrastructure does just that, while providing increased flexibility and allowing BECU to better meet the expectations of our more than 1 million members.”

Green Shield Canada (GSC)

Green Shield Canada (GSC) is a one of the leading health and dental benefit carriers in Canada, with over 850 employees across seven locations. Starting last year, GSC is deploying the Avaya Equinox™ Experience and seeing strong results. Competing with larger players in its industry, GSC sees strong collaboration among its workforce as a key ingredient for success.

Jim Mastronardi, GSC Director for Enterprise Infrastructure says, “Green Shield Canada has over 850 employees across seven offices in Canada—from Montreal to Vancouver. We saw an opportunity to explore technology upgrades that would enhance company-wide communications and bring our teams across Canada closer together. With just a single training session, employees have hit the ground running with the Avaya Equinox tools. The video conferencing option has provided a solution to overbooked meeting rooms, and the instant messaging feature is already cutting down on the number of emails being sent.”

Scotiabank

Scotiabank prides itself on “being a technology company providing financial services.” As a long-time Avaya customer—and a beta customer for Avaya Oceana™ and Avaya Oceanalytics™—Scotiabank is on a digital transformation journey to better serve bank customers worldwide. Scotiabank contact centers located in Canada and the Caribbean & Latin America region have benefited from a next-gen centralized architecture leveraging the latest Avaya solutions to better serve customers.

Scotiabank has already developed and deployed Avaya Oceana and Avaya Breeze™ apps, and continues to innovate in an ongoing drive to improve customer service and meet customer needs in a competitive market. The success of Scotiabank’s transformation program has enabled the bank to move with greater agility, improved reliability, and speed to market. This has changed the framework for deployment from months/years to days/weeks while improving the overall ROI/TCO.

The Crossing Studios

The Crossing Studios is one of Vancouver’s largest and fastest growing full-service studios and production facilities for film. The firm caters to companies like Fox, Nickelodeon, Showtime, and Netflix. The Crossing Studios were unhappy with the stability and quality of the disparate systems previously in place across their seven studio locations. In 2016, The Crossing Studios deployed a Powered by Avaya IP Office solution offered by local provider Unity Connected Solutions.

Powered by Avaya IP Office has improved stability, reduced TCO and provided the advanced features that the business needs to serve a very demanding film industry client base, including high scale audio conferencing, extensive web collaboration, and rich multi-vendor HD video conferencing. CTO Mark Herrman says, “We needed something that would support our rapid growth, support our clients, and support our bottom line. Thanks to IP Office and the hosted cloud model, we’re able to keep pace with dynamic, fast-moving film productions, staying as flexible as our clients need us to be.” Estimated savings are in the six figures for the first year alone.

Walgreens

Walgreens is using custom Avaya Snap-ins to bring centralized contact center reporting capabilities to local branch sites, for compliance purposes and to help improve the overall customer experience. Avaya Professional Services were instrumental with the deployment, which relies on an Avaya Pod Fx infrastructure.

These companies are each leaders in their respective industries. As part of their digital transformation journeys, they recognize that when it comes to selecting a trusted technology advisor, “experience is everything.” #ExperienceAvaya.

APTs Part 4: How Do You Detect an Advanced Persistent Threat in Your Network?

Here in part four of my APT series, we’re looking at how to detect Advanced Persistent Threats in your network. The key is to know what to look for and how to spot it.

Look for patterns of behavior that are unusual from a historical standpoint. Some things to look for are unusual patterns of session activity. Port scanning and the use of discovery methods should be monitored as well. Look for unusual TCP connections, particularly lateral or outbound encrypted connections.

Remember that there is a theory to all types of intrusion. An attacker needs to compromise the perimeter. Unless the attacker is very lucky, they will not be where they need or want to be. This means that a series of lateral and northbound moves will be required to establish a foothold. In order for any information to leave your organization there has to be an outbound exfiltration channel. This is another area where APTs have to diverge from the normal behavior of a user.

Here’s what to look for:

  • Logon Activity:

    Logons to new or unusual systems can be a flag. New or unusual session types are also a flag to watch for, particularly outbound encrypted sessions or unusual time of day or location. Watch for jumps in activity or velocity.

  • Program execution:

    Look for new or unusual program executions at unusual times of the day or from unusual locations. Execution of the program from a privileged account status rather than a normal user account should also be alarming.

  • File access:

    Look for unusually high volume access to file servers or unusual file access patterns. Also be sure to monitor cloud-based sharing uploads as these are a very good way to hide in the flurry of other activity.

  • Network activity:

    New IP addresses or secondary addresses can be a flag. Unusual DNS queries should be looked into, particularly those with a bad or no reputation. Look for the correlation between the above points and new or unusual network connection activity. Many C2 channels are established in this fashion.

  • Database access:

    Most users do not have access to the database directly. But also look for manipulated applications calls doing sensitive table access, modifications or deletions. Be sure to lock down the database environment by disabling many of the added options that most modern databases provide. An application proxy service should be implemented to prevent direct access in a general fashion.

     

    The goal is to arrive at a risk score based on the aggregate of the above. This involves the session serialization of hosts as they access resources. The problem with us as humans is this: if we’re barraged with tons of data and forced to do the picking out of significant data, we are woefully inefficient. First of all, we have a propensity for missing certain data sets. How often have you heard the saying, “Another set of eyes”? Never manually analyze data alone, always have another set of eyes go over it.

     

    At Avaya we’ve developed a shortest path bridging networking fabric we refer to as SDN Fx™ Architecture that is based on three basic self-complimentary security principles:

    • Hyper-segmentation: This is a new term that we’ve coined to indicate the primary deltas of this new approach to traditional network micro-segmentation. First, hyper-segments are extremely dynamic and lend themselves well to automation and dynamic service chaining, as is often required with software-defined networks. Second, they are not based on IP routing and therefore do not require traditional route policies or access control lists to constrict access to the micro-segment. These two traits create a service that is well suited for security automation.
    • Stealth: Due to the fact that SDN Fx is not based on IP, it is dark from an IP discovery perspective. Many of the topological aspects to the network, which are of key importance to APTs, simply cannot be discovered by traditional port scanning and discovery techniques. So the hyper-segment holds the user or intruder in a narrow and dark community that has little or no communications capability with the outside world, except through well-defined security analytic inspection points.
    • Elasticity: Because we are not dependent on IP routing to establish service paths, we can extend or retract certain secure hyper-segments based on authentication and proper authorization. Just as easily however, SDN FX can retract a hyper-segment, perhaps based on an alert from security analytics that something is amiss with the suspect system. There may even be the desire to redirect them into Honey pot environments where a whole network can be replicated in SDN Fx for little or no cost from a networking perspective.

In the End

Hardly a day goes by without hearing about a data breach somewhere in the world. To combat these breaches, it’s imperative to understand how APTs work and how you can detect them. Remember—prevention is ideal, but detection is a must!

With this blog series, I hope I’ve helped you see how to limit the impact of APTs on your enterprise. If you missed a blog post, here’s the whole series:

APTs Part 1: Protection Against Advanced Persistent Threats to Your Data

APTs Part 2: How the Advanced Persistent Threat Works

APTs Part 3: Prevention is Ideal, But Detection is a Must

APTs Part 4: How Do You Detect an Advanced Persistent Threat in Your Network?